By David Eltis, David Richardson
For the reason that 1999, extensive learn efforts have greatly elevated what's recognized in regards to the historical past of coerced migration of transatlantic slaves. a major database of slave alternate voyages from Columbus’s period to the mid-nineteenth century is now to be had on an open-access site, incorporating newly came across info from records round the Atlantic international. The groundbreaking essays during this publication draw on those new facts to discover basic questions about the alternate in African slaves. The study findings—that the scale of the slave exchange was once 14 percentage more than were anticipated, that exchange above and lower than the equator was once mostly separate, that ports sending out the main slave voyages weren't in Europe yet in Brazil, and more—challenge accredited understandings of transatlantic slavery and recommend numerous new instructions for very important extra research. For the main whole database on slave alternate voyages ever compiled, stopover at www.slavevoyages.org.
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Additional info for Extending the Frontiers: Essays on the New Transatlantic Slave Trade Database
As described in this book’s Vos, Eltis, and Richardson essay (chapter 8), we estimate 3,200 taken from Africa before 1631. 43 From 1651 to the operational beginnings of the second West India Company in 1674, the annual average increased substantially to just over 4,000, or nearly 5,000 in the 1660s alone, as the Dutch supplied slaves to most markets in the Americas, ranging from New Amsterdam in the north to Río de la Plata in the south. 44 Between 1674 and 1730, West India Company vessels and various interlopers carried off 176,400 slaves by our reckoning, or 3,100 a year.
Port books, a range of London newspapers reporting shipping movements, colonial sources, records of forts on the African coast, seamen’s sixpences records (a levy on wages paid into a fund to support inﬁrm seamen), registers of Mediterranean passes (issued to protect 25 26 David Eltis and David Richardson vessels from the Barbary powers), and many private papers both overlap and compensate for each other when these record series are discontinuous. It is safe to assume that TSTD2 contains all slave vessels originating from 1713 to 1779 in Bristol, and 95 percent of the ventures leaving all other English ports.
The twenty-eight are just 3 percent of Coughtry’s total. Thus, while not every Rhode Island voyage is included in the set, it seems highly unlikely that the complete total for Rhode Island could have exceeded Coughtry’s list by much. The new Atlantic-based sources also suggest that for every slave voyage organized on the North American mainland before 1730, there were ﬁve that set sail from the British Caribbean. After 1730, by contrast, this ratio was reversed. In other words, the sparse records of mainland colonial slave voyages before 1730 are the result of few voyages, not few records.