By Vladimir M. Akulin
This ebook gathers jointly a variety of related difficulties that may be encountered in numerous fields of recent quantum physics and that experience universal positive aspects with reference to multilevel quantum platforms. the most motivation was once to envision from a uniform perspective quite a few types and methods which have been built in atomic, molecular, condensed topic, chemical, laser and nuclear physics in a variety of contexts. The publication can help you senior-level undergraduate, graduate scholars and researchers placing specific difficulties in those fields right into a broader clinical context and thereby making the most of well-established strategies utilized in adjoining fields.
This moment version has been increased to incorporate big new fabric (e.g. new sections on Dynamic Localization and on Euclidean Random Matrices and new chapters on Entanglement, Open Quantum structures, and Coherence Protection). it truly is in keeping with the author’s lectures on the Moscow Institute of Physics and know-how, on the CNRS objectiveé Cotton Laboratory, and on different classes he has given during the last decades.
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We start the consideration with problems related to the domain usually known as the interaction of radiation with matter, which is mostly dedicated to atoms and molecules in intense resonant laser fields. In these types of problems, one can usually separate one or a few optically active degrees of freedom that interact with the laser field directly, while the rest of the degrees of freedom are not dipole active, but simply are coupled to the optically active ones by intra-molecular or intra-atomic interactions.
Here φ denotes the electronic wavefunctions, and Φ the vibrational wavefunctions dependent on all the nuclear coordinates. 3 Vibrational Excitation of Polyatomic Molecules We encounter the same situation for the vibrational motion of a polyatomic molecule excited by an infrared laser field resonant to one of its vibrational modes. 6) where n denotes the number of absorbed laser quanta. Let us consider it in more detail. The anharmonicity of vibrations makes the motion of the polyatomic molecule chaotic, and hence the matrix elements of the dipole moment acquire a random character.
Modeling of interactions by random matrices appears in a natural way in the physics of atomic and molecular clusters. Indeed if, as the result of mutual attraction, a group of atoms or molecules is stuck together, the spectrum of the energy eigenstates of such an aggregation changes considerably as compared to the initial spectrum of the non-interacting particles. We illustrate this in a simple example presented in Fig. 14 by showing a reconstruction of the spectrum of an ensemble of two-level systems resulting from the excitation-exchange interaction among them.