After Appomattox: Military Occupation and the Ends of War by Gregory P. Downs

After Appomattox: Military Occupation and the Ends of War by Gregory P. Downs

By Gregory P. Downs

On April eight, 1865, after 4 years of civil struggle, normal Robert E. Lee wrote to normal Ulysses S. furnish inquiring for peace. Peace used to be past his authority to barter, furnish spoke back, yet give up phrases he might speak about. As Gregory Downs unearths during this gripping historical past of post–Civil conflict the USA, Grant’s contrast proved prophetic, for peace might elude the South for years after Lee’s hand over at Appomattox.

After Appomattox argues that the warfare didn't finish with accomplice capitulation in 1865. as an alternative, a moment part began which lasted until eventually 1871—not the undertaking euphemistically known as Reconstruction yet a nation of real belligerency whose undertaking was once to form the phrases of peace. utilizing its warfare powers, the U.S. military oversaw an bold career, stationing tens of millions of troops in 1000's of outposts around the defeated South. This groundbreaking learn of the post-surrender career makes transparent that its objective was once to overwhelm slavery and to create significant civil and political rights for freed humans within the face of rebels’ daring resistance.

yet reliance on army career posed its personal dilemmas. In parts past military keep watch over, the Ku Klux Klan and different violent insurgencies created near-anarchy. electorate within the North additionally couldn't belly a pricey and demoralizing profession. less than these pressures, by way of 1871, the Civil struggle got here to its criminal finish. The wartime after Appomattox disrupted planter energy and proven vital rights, however the sunrise of criminal peacetime heralded the go back of insurgent strength, no longer a sustainable peace.

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From central cities and rivers and railroad lines, the units moved outward in more ambitious and unpredictable ways. From 120 outposts at the end of March, they eventually reached more than 630 posts in the former Confederacy. Across the South, the army occupied seven different Lexingtons and six Franklins, as well as three Fayettevilles, two Fayettes, and two LaFayettes. In South Carolina, companies quickly occupied not only large towns but also smaller places like Gillisonville, Grahamville, and McPhersonville.

S. S. 31 Because the army’s policies were still unfolding during the weeks after surrender, it can be hard to grasp the concrete implications of the continuation of wartime. In the late spring of 1865, the machinery of postsurrender occupation was not yet in place in most regions; few parallel court systems AFTER SURRENDER 31 were functioning. But one could see the impact of war time in what did not happen. One place where the endurance of wartime mattered was St. Catherines Island, Georgia, where the remarkable Tunis Campbell, a New Jersey– born African American lecturer and organizer, had become the leader of an extraordinary experiment in black self-rule.

Calling upon a peacetime tradition that reached at least as far back as the Roman triumphal marches, spectators threw flowers into the air. 42 As the soldiers reached the final stand, they saluted the president, the cabinet, and a few generals, and then marched onward to camps from which many would begin to head home. The Grand Review promised to deliver upon the promise of the nation’s seal, to make of many one. From a war which made two nations, two fronts, a mul- AFTER SURRENDER 37 titude of armies, and an immensity of experiences, the review offered unity in the form of a peace that drowned rivalries and treason and bondage in a tide of progress.

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