By Martin Glassner
This learn is an outgrowth of an curiosity within the query of entry to the ocean constructed through the writer in the course of a ten-month sojourn in the course of 1962 and 1963 as American Vice Consul in Antofagasta, Chile. in this interval he had the chance to go to Peru thrice and Bolivia two times. This adventure, supplemented through study in lots of libraries in big apple, Washington and California and by means of interviews, files and different reference fabrics, led to a close learn of Bolivia's crusade for an outlet to the ocean. 1 the current research has drawn a few fabric from the sooner one, yet is such an difficult growth of it that it could possibly good be thought of a unconditionally new attempt. the trouble was once made as the challenge of entry to the ocean has develop into extra serious because the moment international warfare because the emphasis on exchange and fiscal improvement has grown whereas while many new land-locked states have been being born. There have, in addition, been extra threatened and real interferences with loose transit in this interval than through the previous part century and extra. a radical exam of the topic appeared so as, then, as an reduction to an realizing of the issues concerned and as a consultant to destiny makes an attempt to unravel them. as well as a basic survey of the query, 3 case stories were incorporated either as illustrations of lots of those difficulties and as particular events in which to check proposed solutions.
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Additional info for Access to the Sea for Developing Land-Locked States
In seven of its eight paragraphs, Article 33 of the Havana Charter was virtually identical with the seven paragraphs of Article V of GATT. Two differences are significant, however. 2), (25 September 1964), pp. 67-68. 24 DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL LAW unless the Organization finds, on the complaint of any other Member, that the withholding of the special facilities from the complaining Member contravenes the most favoured nation provisions of this Charter. " 14 The Havana Charter contained, in addition, a wholly new provision, not included in either the Barcelona Convention or GATT.
The Convention itself envisages that these provide for "greater facilities" than are mentioned in its own, necessarily general and cautious provisions. 8. Transit trade problems are getting more, not less, important as time goes on, because unhampered, fast, reliable and economical transit is becoming ever more essential for nations and individuals. Unless progress is made in this field, the world will be faced, because of frustrations of landlocked States, with a new source of dissent and complications on an international scale.
Former Afghan Minister of Justice and member of the International Law Commission, he was Chairman of the Afghan delegation at the 1958 Law of the Sea Conference and at the Tehran meeting of ECAFE in 1964, served as Chairman of the subcommittee on land-locked states of the Fifth Committee of UNCTAD in 1964, and as chairman of the Afghan delegation to the United Nations Conference on Transit Trade of Land-locked Countries in 1965 was again very active. Dr. Tabibi is currently Afghan Ambassador in Tokyo.